Acupuncture Continuing Education

Acupuncture Continuing Education News

Acupuncture News and Research

Acupuncture gets revived from the cutting room floor in the film Iron Man 3. The Chinese release of the film Iron Man 3 features an extended three minute segment wherein the protagonist Tony Stark, played by Robert Downey Jr., undergoes acupuncture assisted surgery. Currently, there are plans to revive this segment in a short film entitled The Prologue. Speculation on distribution of The Prologue cites possible inclusion in the DVD or television release.

The Yin Yang symbol reflects the nature of the universe. This is not the first time Robert Downey Jr. makes the acupuncture news cycle. Less than a year ago, he was presented with the Robert Graham Visionary Award by Yo San University founders Dr. Daoshing Ni and Dr. Mao Shing Ni. Yo San University is a nonprofit organization that promotes education in Traditional Chinese Medicine and Taoist healing arts including masters and doctoral degree programs towards acupuncturist licensure. Notably, Robert Downey Jr. uses Traditional Chinese Medicine including acupuncture and herbal medicine. He also practices Qi Gong and Kung Fu. It looks like the real Tony Stark has a few well known secrets to health and fitness of his own.

The Robert Graham Visionary Award is a lifetime outstanding achievement award named after the famed sculptor who served as a trustee of Yo San University (Los Angeles, California) during his lifetime. Fund raising conducted by Yo San University towards humanitarian outreach projects features admission to this year’s Robert Graham Visionary award celebration. The endowment sponsors a program at the Childrens Hospital Los Angeles that provides children suffering from severe pain with acupuncture treatments. The endowment also assists the Venice Family Clinic in its effort to provide health services to the economically disadvantaged and to those without adequate healthcare insurance. Other services supported by the endowment include financial support of Primere Oncology in an effort to provide pain relief for cancer patients and for services to HIV patients through the Being Alive program.

A new study concludes that acupuncture is effective for relieving headaches. Investigators note that acupuncture reduces the intensity and duration of headaches. In addition, they suggest that acupuncture can reduce the need for “drug therapies and is a valuable option for patient suffering from CDH [chronic daily headache].”

A patient receiving acupuncture is depicted here. In this controlled study, verum acupuncture was compared with sham acupuncture. The verum acupuncture group improved significantly over the control group. Verum acupuncture significantly reduced the frequency, intensity and duration of chronic daily headaches. The research notes that acupuncture is effective for reducing the intensity of pain for chronic tension headaches and migraines. In addition, patients suffering from nausea due to headaches and migraines showed a significant decrease in nausea levels.

In related recent research, acupuncture was found more effective and safer than a migraine medication. Researchers discovered that acupuncture effectively reduced migraine pain intensity levels and no adverse effects occurred. In the same study, patients receiving the medication valproic acid did not have the same level of clinical benefits as acupuncture and with nearly 50% of patients experiencing adverse side effects from the drug.The outcomes were measured six months after the study had been completed. This demonstrates that acupuncture has long term benefits for patients with migraines and that it is both safe and effective.

A massive meta-analysis study measuring patient outcomes of nearly 18,000 patients concurs with the researchers. The study finds that acupuncture effectively treats neck, back, osteoarthritis, headache and shoulder pain. Published in the Archives of Internal Medicine, the researchers concluded that, “Acupuncture is effective for the treatment of chronic pain and is therefore a reasonable referral option.” US Navy sports medicine Dr. Stuessi concurs, “I’ve found phenomenal, off-the-charts results doing acupuncture for sleep, for dizziness and headaches.”

Acupuncture for pain control has received a great deal of attention in modern research. A study conducted at the University of California (San Francisco) discovered that acupuncture provides the same level of pain relief as morphine. The laboratory experiment revealed that needling ST36, an acupuncture point located on the lower leg, significantly reduces jaw pain. After one minute, the pain level reduced by over 20% and after thirty minutes of acupuncture treatment the pain level reduced by 30%. This acupuncture procedure provided the same level of pain relief that is made possible by one dose of morphine.

According to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory, acupuncture point ST36 is located along a channel of other points starting in the head and terminating in the feet. ST36 is on the Stomach channel, which is also referred to as the Foot-Yangming Meridian. This acupuncture channel originates at another acupuncture point, LI20, runs to the inner canthus of the eye to an acupuncture point called UB1 and then descends to the gums and joins with yet another acupuncture point called DU26. The Foot-Yangming channel then circles around the mouth, meets with acupuncture point CV24 and then follows the angle of the jaw. Other details of Chinese medicine theory demonstrate that the various branches of the Foot-Yangming Stomach channel connect to the head, mouth, gums and jaw and therefore are consistent with the research demonstrating that acupuncture point ST36 relieves jaw pain.

The mounting evidence from both primary and secondary research demonstrates that acupuncture has significant effective actions in controlling pain. Acupuncture is a covered benefit in many health insurance plans, is used by the US military for the treatment of pain and PTSD and is supported by a deluge of research from prestigious universities. That, combined with publication of supportive research published in important medical journals, suggests that acupuncture is now entering a more mainstream branch of medicine.


Facco, E., et al. "Acupuncture Versus Valproic Acid In The Prophylaxis Of Migraine Without Aura: A Prospective Controlled Study." Minerva anestesiologica (2013).

Vickers AJ, Cronin AM, Maschino AC, et al. Acupuncture for Chronic Pain: Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. Published online September 10, 2012. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.3654.

Goddard, Greg. "Acupuncture (ST 36) Reduces Jaw Open Reflex in a Rat: A Pilot Study." (2013).

Vickers AJ, Cronin AM, Maschino AC, et al. Acupuncture for Chronic Pain: Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. Published online September 10, 2012.

A new study finds unique electrical phenomena through acupuncture meridians, channels. Researchers discovered that needling proximal acupuncture points causes significantly increased bioelectric amplitudes in distal acupuncture points along the same meridian. The same was not true of non-acupuncture points in similar regions of the body. The researchers note that the measurements indicate “electrophysiological uniqueness in the form of a greater bioelectric potential amplitude when a proximal acupoint is stimulated and the response is measured at a distal acupoint along the same meridian.”

Needle stimulation transmits bioelectric energy. Acupuncture point P4 was stimulated with an acupuncture needle. The bioelectric potential was measured at acupuncture point P6 to determine if needling P4 elicited a change in the current. Non-acupuncture control points were also needled at nearby points on test subjects. The amplitude of induced signals at acupuncture point P6 showed significant increases on the test subjects whereas the non-acupuncture points did not have the same effects. The researchers measured that “a signal with statistically greater amplitude appeared only when a verum acupuncture point was stimulated and when the distal measurement was recorded on the acupuncture meridian.”

The researchers note that this type of bioelectric investigation is uncommon because most bioelectric investigations of acupuncture points and their meridians measure electrical impedances whereas this study measured endogenous bioelectric potentials. The electrical impedance studies involve the application of an externally generated electric current applied to an acupuncture point with subsequent measurements at other acupuncture points and regions of the body. This study, however, did not involve any externally generated currents. Rather, the current was naturally produced by the body as a result of manual acupuncture point needling. The “endogenous bioelectric potentials”, note the researchers, reflect changes in amplitudes without conflation with external currents. In this way, the researchers suggest that this new finding is more accurate. Another difficulty with prior bioelectric investigations was reading only high frequency currents. In this study, slower frequencies were also examined and the equipment was able to detect significant changes as a result of acupuncture point stimulation.

Spaulding, Keith, Andrew Ahn, and Agatha P. Colbert. "Acupuncture Needle Stimulation Induces Changes in Bioelectric Potential." Medical Acupuncture (2013). New England School of Acupuncture, Newton, Massachusetts. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, Massachusetts. Researcher, St. Augustine, Florida.

Acupuncture is effective for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), according to a new study. IBD involves the inflammation of the digestive tract and includes ulcerative colitis, Chron’s disease and other chronic intestinal diseases characterized by abdominal pain and diarrhea. The researchers discovered that electroacupuncture suppressed IBD by regulating peristalsis via its effective actions on the sympathetic nervous system.

Acupuncture benefits the intestines. In related research, acupuncture has been found effective for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The study was a meta-analysis of 11 investigations with a sample size totaling 950 patients. The researchers concluded that acupuncture combined with moxibustion is both safe, effective and is clinically more effective than pharmaceutical medications for the treatment of IBS.

These recent studies reflect earlier findings published in The Journal of the American Medical Association on the efficaciousness of Chinese Medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. The study demonstrated that Chinese herbal medicine “offers improvements in symptoms for some patients with IBS.” A review from the Duke University Medical Center (Durham, North Carolina) published in the Journal of Gastroenterology notes that acupuncture exerts antiemetic and antinociceptive effects. The review posits acupuncture as potentially appropriate for the treatment of GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease), functional gastrointestinal dysfunction and functional dyspepsia.

Yutani, Toru, Hirohisa Kawahata, Daisuke Sotobayashi, Hiroshi Kawanami, and Motokuni Aoki. "Anti-inflammatory Effect of Electro-acupuncture via Reduction in Colonic Peristalsis in a Mouse Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease." Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry-Immunology, Endocrine and Metabolic Agents) 13, no. 2 (2013): 122-131.

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2012 Oct;32(10):957-60. [Meta analysis of acupuncture-moxibustion in treatment of irritable bowel syndrome]. Pei LX, Zhang XC, Sun JH, Geng H, Wu XL. Acupuncture and Rehabilitation Department, Jiangsu Province Hospital of TCM, Nanjing, China.

JAMA. 1998 Nov 11;280(18):1585-9. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with Chinese herbal medicine: a randomized controlled trial. Bensoussan A, Talley NJ, Hing M, Menzies R, Guo A, Ngu M. Research Unit for Complementary Medicine, University of Western Sydney Macarthur, Campbelltown, New South Wales, Australia.

Fireman, Zvi, et al. "Acupuncture treatment for irritable bowel syndrome." Digestion 64.2 (2001): 100-103.

Lembo, Anthony J., et al. "A treatment trial of acupuncture in IBS patients." The American journal of gastroenterology 104.6 (2009): 1489-1497.

T. Takahashi, J Gastroenterol 2006,; 41:408-417. DOI 10.1007/s00535-006-1773-6.

New research has discovered that a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) herbal medicine prevents the proliferation of tumors and causes the elimination of tumors comprised of breast cancer cells. A chromatographically purified form of the herb Tian Hua Fen was injected into laboratory mice with tumors caused by estrogen dependent and non-estrogen dependent breast cancer cells. Sterilized Tian Hua Fen, Trichosanthes Kirilowii Maximowicz, was injected intraperitoneally and caused significant reductions in both tumor weight and volume within 16 days of treatment. Immunohistochemistry corroborated the findings

An injection of Tian Hua Fen helps to fight breast cancer. The dose had no detectable toxicity.  Analysis revealed that Tian Hua Fen effectively induces apoptosis, cell death, in both estrogen dependent and non-estrogen dependent breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. The researchers note that the herbal medicine’s ability to eradicate breast cancer cells without toxicity warrants further clinical trials. The researchers also note that Tian Hua Fen may possibly be developed for combination with other chemotherapeutic therapies.

The researchers note that mature Tian Hua Fen contains 247 amino acids and “shares remarkable sequence similarity with other antitumor proteins in plant genera Trichosanthes and Momordica….” The study cited prior research demonstrating Tian Hua Fen’s “ability to ablate the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1).” They suggested that Tian Hua Fen is a “potential antidote against some tumors” because it interferes with tumor growth through varying molecular mechanisms. The pathways that block tumor growth were outlined in detail. Notably, the researchers cited that Tian Hua Fen has “specific tumor cell recognition as well as binding and cellular entry characteristics” and that Tian Hua Fen does so based on its “binging on different membrane proteins” including those of human carcinoma cells.

It is important to distinguish this herb’s common use in an acupuncture clinic versus its application in this research. A licensed acupuncturist uses Tian Hua Fen for a variety of treatment therapies in powders, tablets, capsules and decocted teas. In this investigation, Tian Hua Fen is sterilized and injected directly into the laboratory mice. As a result, the effective action and medicinal function varies greatly between the oral and injection applications of Tian Hua Fen. This herb lends great hope in the development of cures for breast cancer but this is not to suggest that the oral ingestion of this herb has the ability to eradicate breast cancer. That said, we can only hope that funding for future research will help develop the full potential of Tian Hua Fen in the fight against breast cancer.

Fang, Evandro Fei, Chris Zhi Yi Zhang, Lin Zhang, Jack Ho Wong, Yau Sang Chan, Wen Liang Pan, Xiu Li Dan, Cui Ming Yin, Chi Hin Cho, and Tzi Bun Ng. "Trichosanthin inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation in both cell lines and nude mice by promotion of apoptosis." PloS One 7, no. 9 (2012): e41592.

New MRI research concludes that needling acupuncture points causes specific brain patterns associated with the treatment of specific diseases. Investigators compared two acupuncture points on the foot with a nearby sham acupuncture point. They discovered that the true acupuncture points consistently elicited specific brain responses in regions associated with their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) medical indications and functions for therapeutic effects.

New MRI imaging shows acupuncture point specificity. Acupuncture ModelAcupuncture points LR3 (Taichong) and ST44 were compared with a sham point located between the two points. MRI scans revealed that LR3 uniformly stimulates specific regions of the cerebrum as does acupuncture point ST44. Although physically located in close proximity, each acupuncture point elicited its own, unique fMRI response in the brain. The researchers note that, “Acupuncture at adjacent acupoints elicits distinct cerebral activation patterns, and those specific patterns might be involved in the mechanism of the specific therapeutic effects of different acupoints.”

The researchers noted that LR3 and ST44 stimulated distinct brain response patters and also shared some common areas of cerebral activation. Unique to LR3 was its stimulation of the middle occipital gyrus, an area related to the visual cortex. Acupuncture point LR3, although located on the foot, is traditionally indicated for the treatment of eye disorders within the Traditional Chinese Medicine system. The researchers note that this MRI finding is not isolated to this study. Other research also finds visual cortex activation elicited by needling foot acupuncture points that are specifically indicated for the treatment of eye disorders.

LR3 also activated the medial frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobe, thalamus and the limbic system. These areas are associated with the physiological processes of both pain and paralysis. LR3, according to TCM theory, is indicated for the treatment of pain and paralysis. The researchers note that, “The results confirmed the view that therapeutic
effects of acupuncture may work through the central nervous system pathway.”

The study notes that Traditional Chinese Medicine indications for acupuncture point ST44 are for the treatment of toothaches, sore throat, stomachache, swelling and pain of the foot. MRI imaging demonstrated that ST44 activated areas of the brain associated with pain processing: superior and inferior frontal gyrus, secondary somatosensory area. The researchers note that, “Our results provide supplementary neuroimaging evidence for the existence of acupoint specificity.”

This investigation concurs with another recent finding. Researchers concluded that acupuncture points CV12 and UB32 specifically stimulate the heart, stomach and intestines consistent with their TCM indications and functions. The study used electrogastrogram and HRV readings to verify the results. Another related MRI study of acupuncture points TB5 (Waiguan), GB34 (Yanglingquan) and GB20 (Fengchi) finds that these acupuncture points traditionally used for the treatment of migraines activate specific brain regions associated with pain reductions. PET-CT neuroimaging revealed that acupuncture “induce(s) different cerebral glucose metabolism changes in pain-related brain regions and reduce(s) intensity of pain” for patients with migraines.

A wealth of recent MRI research has measured acupuncture point specificity. University of California School of Medicine (Irvine) researchers analyzed MRI based acupuncture studies and concluded that, “Recent evidence shows that stimulation of different points on the body causes distinct responses in hemodynamic, fMRI and central neural electrophysiological responses.” The MRI findings demonstrated that “stimulation of different sets of acupoints leads to disease-specific neuronal responses, even when acupoints are located within the same spinal segment.” The culmination of this research helps us to gain greater understanding as to the mechanisms by which acupuncture exerts its effective actions.

Liu, Hua, Jian-Yang Xu, Lin Li, Bao-Ci Shan, Bin-Bin Nie, and Jing-quan Xue. "fMRI Evidence of Acupoints Specificity in Two Adjacent Acupoints." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013 (2013).

Minagawa, Munenori, Yasuzo Kurono, Tatsuyo Ishigami, Atsushi Yamada, Toshinori Kakamu, Ryoichi Akai, and Junichiro Hayano. "Site-specific organ-selective effect of epifascial acupuncture on cardiac and gastric autonomic functions." Autonomic Neuroscience (2013).

A PET-CT study on specificity of acupoints through acupuncture treatment on migraine patients. Jie Yang1, Fang Zeng1, Yue Feng1,Li Fang1, Wei Qin2, Xuguang Liu1, Wenzhong Song3, Hongjun Xie3 , Ji Chen1, Fanrong Liang1.

Point specificity in acupuncture. Chinese Medicine 2012, 7:4 doi:10.1186/1749-8546-7-4. Emma M Choi, Fang Jiang, John C Longhurst. 
Susan Samueli Center for Integrative Medicine, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine CA.

New research published in the Annals of Oncology (Oxford University Press, Oxford Journals) concludes that acupuncture is effective for relieving dry mouth caused by cancer radiation therapy. A sample size of 145 patients with chronic radiation induced xerostomia, dry mouth, was studied in a randomized investigation of acupuncture treatments compared with oral care education. The researchers noted that acupuncture was superior to oral care and produced pronounced and clinically significant results.

Acupuncture helps with chemotherapy and radiation side effects.The researchers documented that acupuncture significantly reduced severe dry mouth, reduced issues of sticky saliva and reduced the need for patients to sip fluids to swallow food. Acupuncture also significantly reduced the need to wake up at night to drink. The researchers concluded that eight acupuncture treatments performed at a rate of one per week was superior to oral care education for the relief of xerostomia induced by cancer radiation therapy.

In a related case history published by the Medical College of Wisconsin in the Journal of Cancer Therapeutics & Research, researchers conclude that acupuncture reduces chemotherapy and radiation treatment side effects. The study demonstrated that acupuncture reduced painful swallowing and dry mouth that resulted from chemotherapy and radiation treatment.

Manual acupuncture, electroacupuncture and auricular acupuncture were used. Stomach and Large Intestine Yangming channel points used in the study were: ST3, ST4, ST5, ST6, ST7, ST36, LI4 and LI11. Shaoyang, Taiyang, Taiyin, Ren and Du points were also used: SI18, SI19, GB2, GB3, SP6, GV20, CV23, CV24. Ear acupuncture points Shenmen and Point Zero were also included. Electroacupuncture was applied to ST5, ST6 and ST7 bilaterally for some acupuncture treatments and to ST3 and ST4 as well. The acupuncture needles were 15mm and 25mm in length respectively and the needle depth ranged from 0.25cm to 1cm. Electroacupuncture was set to 30Hz with an amplitude adjusted for patient tolerances.

In another related study, researchers concluded that acupuncture significantly relieves hiccups for patients with late-stage cancer. A total of thirty patients were included in the investigation. Ten improved markedly, eighteen patients demonstrated improvement and two patients did not respond to acupuncture therapy. The total effective rate for the acupuncture therapy exceeded 93 percent.

These three recent investigations suggest that acupuncture plays an important role in supporting patients with cancer. Patient comfort and bodily functions were shown to improve markedly. The amelioration of chemotherapy and radiation side effects serves to relieve suffering and improve the quality of life for cancer patients.

Simcock, R., L. Fallowfield, K. Monson, I. Solis-Trapala, L. Parlour, C. Langridge, and V. Jenkins. "ARIX: A randomised trial of acupuncture v oral care sessions in patients with chronic xerostomia following treatment of head and neck cancer." Annals of Oncology 24, no. 3 (2013): 776-783.
Author Affiliations:
Department of Oncology, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals Trust, Sussex Cancer Centre, Brighton.
Sussex Health Outcomes Research and Education in Cancer (SHORE-C), Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton.
MRC Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Cambridge, UK.

Colorado, Berdale, and Hong Wu. "Acupuncture for the relief of odynophagia and xerostomia after chemoradiation therapy in oropharyngeal cancer: a case report." (2013).

Journal of Acupuncture and Tuina Science, Volume 10, Number 2 (2012), 117-119, DOI: 10.1007/s11726-012-0585-x. Electroacupuncture combined with auricular point sticking for hiccups in late-stage cancer. Xia-ping Shao.

A recent publication in the Georgetown University Institutional Repository emphasizes the specific actions by which electro-acupuncture relieves chronic stress and anxiety. Citing a multiplicity of studies showing the effectiveness of acupuncture for the treatment and anxiety, the researchers compared its physiological mechanisms of effective action. The researchers note that two main pathways are involved in the stress reducing effects of electro-acupuncture, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS).

Acupuncture relieves stress.The HPA hormones responsive to electro-acupuncture therapy are brain corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), plasma adenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and serum corticosterone (CORT). The sympathetic nervous system markers were primarily adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a norepinephrine synthesis enzyme, plasma neuropeptide Y (NPY) and norepinephrine. The researchers then examined blockage of the HPA and SNS pathways in an effort to determine which has the predominant role in electro-acupuncture induced stress reduction.

Electroacupuncture effectively reduced adrenal mRNA expression levels of NPY and TH even when NE levels remained constant. This finding confirms that the HPA pathway has a primary role in electroacupuncture induced stress reduction. The research was confirmed with significant decreases of mRNA expression and immunoreactivity of CRH and NPY in the paraventricular nucleus. Behavioral studies also confirmed the results. As a result of these findings, the researchers concluded that “although the SNS was modulated by EA (electroacupuncture), the HPA may be the main pathway responsible for the chronic-stress allaying effects of EA.”

Eshkevari, Ladan. "The Stress Reducing Effects of Acupuncture in a Rat Model of Chronic Stress."

New research demonstrates that specific electro-acupuncture frequencies result in superior neurologic functional recovery following ischemic incidents. A recent study demonstrates that specific electro-acupuncture interventions protect the structural integrity of astrocytes and exert a protective mechanism in the brain following cerebral ischemic injuries. Researchers discovered that electro-acupuncture applied bilaterally to LI11 (Quchi) and ST36 (Zusanli) at 15 Hz and 30 Hz is effective in preserving the structural integrity of astrocytes, important regulators of neuronal survival following ischemic brain injuries. Electro-acupuncture at 100 Hz did not show the same benefits as 15 Hz and 30 Hz when measured with glial fibrillary acid protein expression tests and investigation of ultrastructural damage on the borders of the infarct.

Electron microscope studies show that acupuncture protects the brain. Electron MicroscopeThe researchers employed electron microscopy to take a look at the results. They documented clear examples of nerve cell and astrocyte protection due to pre-treatment with electro-acupuncture at 15 Hz and 30 Hz at LI11 and ST36. Following electron microscope evaluation the researchers concluded, “we observed that ischemic changes in nerve cells and astrocytes were significantly reduced in the hippocampus following stimulation at 15 and 30 Hz. This indicated that pretreatment was more effective in maintaining cell shape and created a neuroprotective effect.”

The research incorporated quantitative analysis of experimental rat models involving middle cerebral arterial occlusion. It was documented through scientific investigation that neurological deficits improved in the groups receiving the 15 Hz and 30 Hz electro-acupuncture stimulation. The electro-acupuncture was delivered with dense-sparse waveforms for 30 minutes a day for 5 days. The researchers were able to quantify an improvement in nerve function as a result of electro-acupuncture and note that their findings are consistent with prior research in which electro-acupuncture promotes limb function after cerebral ischemic injuries. Although 100 Hz electro-acupuncture stimulates the release of four types of opioid peptides for use in analgesia, the researchers concluded that it is 15 Hz and 30 Hz electro-acupuncture that is optimal for protection of nervous system structures.

Xiao, Y. C., X. G. Wu, X. F. Deng, L. P. Huang, Y. C. Zhou, and X. J. Yang. "Optimal electroacupuncture frequency for maintaining astrocyte structural integrity in cerebral ischemia."