The December issue of Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics notes that there is a direct correlation between celiac disease and dental problems in a recent study by researchers in Italy. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine caused by a reaction to gluten proteins found in wheat, barley, and rye. This causes an inflammatory reaction that prevents efficient absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. Symptoms include diarrhea, constipation, gas, bloating, and stomach region pain while some individuals are asymptomatic. Standard treatment is a gluten-free diet. Enamel defects occurred in 23 out of every 100 celiac disease sufferers while 9 out of every 100 people had enamel defects in the control group.